Monday, November 25, 2019

Properties of caffeine

Caffeine (C8H10N4O2) is a natural product from several plants. It is chemically called trimethylxanthine. Chemically, it can be classified as belonging to the heterocyclic group of compounds called the purines.

Caffeine acts as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant in humans. Generally, CNS stimulants speed up physical and mental processes. Specifically, caffeine is well known for its ability to reduce drowsiness and make us more alert and awake.

It also has a role a ryanodine receptor modulator, a ryanodine receptor agonist, a fungal metabolite, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, a psychotropic drug, a diuretic, a food additive, an adjuvant, a plant metabolite, an environmental contaminant, a xenobiotic, a human blood serum metabolite, a mouse metabolite and a mutagen.

Caffeine may boost weight loss or prevent weight gain, possibly by:
*suppressing the appetite and temporarily reducing the desire to eat
*stimulating thermogenesis, so the body generates more heat and energy from digesting food

Its natural sources include coffee beans, guarana, cocoa, tea etc. It occurs as a white powder with a bitter taste but odorless. Decaffeinated cola and soft drinks contain no caffeine, but decaffeinated coffee is not caffeine-free.

It has a density of 1.2g/cm3 with a volatility of 0.5% and a vapour pressure of 101kPa at 178°C. It has an almost a neutral pH of 6.9 and a water solubility of 2.17%. Caffeine has a boiling point of 178°C and a melting point of 238°C.
Properties of caffeine

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